In 1912 the Sümer Opera House was opened on the central Meydan square, being one of the first in the empire. Uzun Sokak, a pedestrianized shopping street. One of the dominant Caucasian groups to the east were the Laz, who were part of the monarchy of the Colchis, together with other related Georgian peoples.[13][14][15]. The Ottoman government often appointed local Chepni Turks and Laz beys as the regional beylerbey. There are no historical records of any considerable Turkish-speaking groups in the Trabzon area until the late 15th century, with the exception of the Chepnis. Très faciles à configurer, ils ne nécessitent qu'un point d'accès WIFI et une alimentation USB. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. Early Christians sought refuge in the Pontic Mountains south of the city, where they established Vazelon Monastery in 270 AD and Sumela Monastery in 386 AD. Due to Trabzonspor's success, the decades-old term "Big Three" which defined the most successful football clubs in Turkey had to be modified into the "Big Four". Under the Köppen climate classification, it has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa)[49] Summers are warm and humid, and the average maximum temperature is around 26.7 °C (80 °F) in August. Renowned former players of Trabzonspor include Şenol Güneş, Lars Olsen and Shota Arveladze. The last Emperor of Trebizond, David, surrendered the city to Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1461. 4,7 sur 5 étoiles 67. "Trapezus" redirects here. During Ottoman times, Tara Bozan was also used. Trabzon (Turkish pronunciation: , Romeika: Trapezounta), historically known as Trebizond in English, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. [59][62] Local Turks are mostly of Chepni Turkmen origin. New roads were constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia under the rule of Vespasian. The runways are located 25 hours away from Atlanta, GA and from here the shortest possible connection is a 1 Stop Over flight. A bombardment of the city in 1915 by the Russian navy cost the lives of 1300 citizens. Fondée au V e siècle av. In the city itself, one can find a hub of shops, stalls and restaurants surrounding the Meydan, a square in the center of the city, which includes a tea garden. The first written source regarding Trabzon is Anabasis, authored by Xenophon. In comparison, only 1 or 2 percent of the province is classified as subtropical, the mountainous areas near the shores being oceanic (Köppen: Cfb), the mountainous offshores being humid continental (Köppen: Dfb), subarctic (Köppen: Dfc) and tundra (Köppen: ET) in the peaks of the Pontic Alps[50]. According to Greek sources,[citation needed] the city was founded in classical antiquity in 756 BCE as Tραπεζούς (Trapezous), by Milesian traders from Sinope. [32] Following this takeover, Mehmed II sent many Turkish settlers into the area, but the old ethnic Greek, Laz and Armenian communities remained. The capital city Trabzon was founded, as Trapezus, by Greek colonists from Sinope, modern Sinop, Turkey. Trabzon hosted the First Edition of the Black Sea Games in July 2007 and the 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival. Ali Şükrü Bey, who had studied in Deniz Harp Okulu (Turkish Naval Academy) and worked as a journalist in the United Kingdom, is seen as a hero by the people of Trabzon, while in neighboring Giresun there is a statue of his murderer Topal Osman. Trebizond had a wealthy merchant class during the late Ottoman period, and the local Christian minority had a substantial influence in terms of culture, economy and politics. [8] The Trabzon province was included in this area. In 1835, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions opened the Trebizond Mission station that it occupied from 1835 to 1859 and from 1882 to at least 1892. While the Pontus was not directly affected by the war, its cities gained independence as a result of it. The people of the eastern Black Sea region are also known for their wit and sense of humour; many jokes in Turkey are told about the natives of the Black Sea region Karadeniz fıkraları (Black Sea jokes). Vous pouvez désormais acheter sur Shein si vous habitez à La Réunion et nous on s'occupe de la livraison de vos colis chez vous ! There was an alleged massacre of Armenians and Greeks in Trabzon just before Russian takeover of the city. During the reign of Sultan Bayezid II, his son Prince Selim (later Sultan Selim I) was the Sanjak-bey of Trabzon, and Selim I's son Suleiman the Magnificent was born in Trabzon in 1494. [citation needed] A very similar dialect is spoken by a community of about 400 speakers, descendants of Christians from the Of valley now living in Greece in the village of Nea Trapezounta (New Trebizond), today part of Katerini, Central Macedonia. The Black Death arrived at the city in September 1347, probably via Kaffa. A. The monastery is built on the side of a very steep mountain overlooking the green forests below and is about 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city. Ottoman era paintings and drawings of Trebizond, Trebizond from the sea by Ivan Aivazovsky, Engraving of the port at Çömlekçi by C. Lapante, Trebizond by Jean-Baptiste Henri Durand-Brager, Trebizond from the sea by Y.M. Within Trabzon Province, the main attractions are the Sümela Monastery (i. e. the Monastery of the Panagia Soumelá) and the Uzungöl lake. The History Of Greece From Its Conquest By The Crusaders To Its Conquest By The Turks And Of The Empire Of Trebizond, 1204–1461, By George Finlay. In some places the snow can stay on the ground during summer months. ÎLE DE LA RÉUNION À PIED (L') - P974 Apr 23 2018. by COLLECTIF. During the Balkan Wars production ceased due to poor exportation and fuel supplies.[58]. Minthrion to the east of the old town were devoted to the Persian-Anatolian Greek god Mithra. In December 1918 Trabzon deputy Hafız Mehmet gave a speech at the Ottoman parliament in which he blamed the former governor of Trebizond province Cemal Azmi – a non-native appointee who had fled to Germany after the Russian invasion – for orchestrating the Armenian Genocide in the city in 1915, by means of drowning. After the defeat of Mithridates in 66 BCE the city was first handed to the Galatians, but it was soon returned to the grandson of Mithradates, and subsequently became part of the new client Kingdom of Pontus. Starting from the 9th century BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. To secure their part of the Black Sea trade, the Genoese bought the coastal fortification "Leonkastron", just west of the winter harbour, in the year 1306. After the great city fire of 1310, the ruined university was reestablished. [citation needed] The Eyalet of Trabzon had always sent troops for the Ottoman campaigns in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. Numerous villages inside and out of Trabzon of the Laz date back as early as the period of Queen Tamar's rule (Georgian: თამარი, also transliterated as T'amar or Thamar; c. 1160 – 18 January 1213) in the newly unified Kingdom of Georgia. [4] The Italian maritime republics such as Venice and in particular Genoa were active in the Black Sea trade for centuries.[4]. [47] During the war Trebizond parliamentarian Ali Şükrü Bey was one of the leading figures of the first Turkish opposition party. In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it is written as طربزون. Trebizond played a mythical role in European literature of the late middle-ages and the Renaissance. "[19] An inscription above the eastern gate of the city, commemorated the reconstruction of the civic walls following an earthquake at Justinian's expense. There was an Armenian community in Trebizond as early as the 7th century.[66]. Les stations de contrôle de la qualité de l’air de GAIA utilisent des capteurs de particules laser de haute technologie pour mesurer en temps réel la pollution par les P2,5, l’un des polluants les plus nocifs. La Reunion Le système d'éducation est le même que le système éducatif français. Topal Osman's men would eventually murder parliamentarian Şükrü for his criticism of the nationalist government of Mustafa Kemal. Miguel de Cervantes and François Rabelais gave their protagonists the desire to possess the city. An important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. As part of the university Gregory Choniades opened a new academy of astronomy, which housed the best observatory outside Persia. [5] It was initially a sanjak before gaining the status of eyalet, and finally became a vilayet in 1868. The province was restored to Turkish control in early 1918 following Russia's exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Cave churches of Agia Anna (Little Ayvasıl), Sotha (St. John), Agios Theodoros, Agios Konstantinos, Agios Christophoros, Agia Kyriakí, Agios Michail and Panagia Tzita churches. During the Turkish War of Independence several Christian Pontic Greek communities in the Trebizond vilayet rebelled against the new army of Mustafa Kemal (notably in Bafra and Santa), but when nationalist Greeks came to Trabzon to proclaim revolution, they were not received with open arms by the local Pontic Greek population of the city. [citation needed] It is also recorded that some Bosniaks were appointed by the Sublime Porte as the regional beylerbeys in Trabzon. Il y a également les écoles d'enseignement Department of Near Eastern Studies. Reunioni është një ishull në jug-perëndim të oqeanit Indian në hemisferën jugore, i cili u bë edhe një departament dhe rajon francez pertej detit. As a result of the general development of the country, Trabzon has developed its economic and commercial life. Only in the reign of Diocletian appears an inscription alluding to the restoration of the city; Ammianus Marcellinus could only write of Trebizond that it was "not an obscure town." [35] Hundreds of schools were constructed in the province during the first half of the 19th century, giving the region one of the highest literacy rates of the empire. In 1924. The observatory Choniades built would become known for its accurate solar eclipse predictions, but was probably used mostly for astrological purposes for the emperor and/or the church. When the kingdom was finally annexed to the Roman province of Galatia two centuries later, the fleet passed to new commanders, becoming the Classis Pontica. Histoire. Orasul Trabzon a primit un rating de 3.5 / 5 de la clientii Direct Booking (1 opinii in perioada 30.05.2017 - 30.05.2017). est la version française du site américain, qui est une plateforme de e-commerce mondialement connue.Cette dernière fut créé en 1994 par le célèbre Jeff Bezos, qui de par ses innovations et son management, a permis à Amazon de devenir l'un des sites d'e-commerce les plus importants au monde ! STICKZIF SR974-1 2 Adhésif Autocollants Région Département 974 Île de La Réunion, 4.5 X 10 CM, Set de 2. The water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 °C (46 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F) throughout the year. The city's top sports club, Trabzonspor, was until 2010 the only Turkish football club outside İstanbul to win the Süper Lig (six times), which was previously (until Trabzonspor's first championship title in the 1975–76 season) won only by the "Big Three" clubs of Istanbul, namely Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş. Trabzon's regional cuisine is traditionally reliant on fish, especially hamsi (fresh European Anchovy similar to the British Sprat or American Smelt). [21] According to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda it was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. As with other major cities on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, Trabzon is situated right on the waterfront, thus allowing for the additional 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) enough to surpass the threshold to be classified as subtropical. Heath W. Lowry's[71] work with Halil İnalcık on Ottoman tax books (Tahrir Defteri)[72] provides detailed demographic statistics for the city of Trabzon and its surrounding areas during the Ottoman period. Cauta cuvinte şi fraze milioane în toate limbile. La moins chère est en avion à Amsterdam Schiphol et train, ce qui coûte 569€. It was one of a number (about ten) of Milesian emporia or trading colonies along the shores of the Black Sea. The city also played a role in the early Renaissance; The western takeover of Constantinople, which formalized Trebizond's political independence, also led Byzantine intellectuals to seek refuge in the city. The governor and mayor of Trebizond were appalled by the violence against Ottoman Greek subjects,[45] and the government of Trabzon thus refused arms to Mustafa Kemal's henchman Topal Osman, who was responsible for mass murders in the western Pontus. Despre Orasul Trabzon - prezentare, informatii, poze si recomandari. [54] The tobacco produced in Trabzon was called Trebizond-Platana. The Black Sea region of Turkey is the world's largest producer of cherry and hazelnut; and a large production area of tea; all of which play an important role in the local cuisine. Basil. [56], Trabzon produced a white green bean, which was sold in Europe. [6] Its creation was based on the Law 1164 from June 1927,[7] which was passed in order to Turkefy the population. [44][verification needed] However, already during the Russian occupation many Turks who had fled to surrounding villages started to return to the city, and governor Chrysantos helped them to re-establish their facilities such as schools, to the dismay of the Russians. [17] Eugenius had destroyed the statue of Mithras which overlooked the city from Mount Minthrion (Boztepe), and became the patron saint of the city after his death. Through his newspaper Tan, Şükrü and his colleagues publicized critiques of the Kemalist government, such as its violence towards Greeks during the population exchange. The Pontic Alps get a significant amount of snow during winters. Sa préfecture (en turc : valiliği) est Trabzon. [25] Although he was killed by the Turks in 1098, other members of his family continued his de facto independent rule into the next century. It was spoken mainly by a Greek Orthodox multi-ethnic population up to the population exchange; nearly all speakers of this local variant of Pontic Greek are now Muslims. Compared to most previously Greek cities in Turkey, a large amount of its Greek Byzantine architectural heritage survives as well. Print. Historically the city was a center of Greek culture and education and from 1683 to 1921, a teachers' college operated known as Phrontisterion of Trapezous, which provided a major impetus for the rapid expansion of Greek education throughout the region. A theater performance in Trebizond c. 1900. These western newspapers were in turn also very popular among the residents of the city. [3] The Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trabzon during the medieval period and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric. Most are Sunni Muslim, while there are some recent converts in the city[citation needed] and possibly a few Crypto-Christians in the Tonya/Gümüşhane area to the southwest of the city. [16] The emperor visited the city in the year 129 as part of his inspection of the eastern border (limes). Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and winter, with a marked reduction in the summer months, a microclimatic condition of the city center compared to the rest of the region. One of the most famous persons to have visited the city in this period was Marco Polo, who ended his overland return journey at the port of Trebizond, and sailed to his hometown Venice with a ship; passing by Constantinople (Istanbul) on the way, which was retaken by the Byzantines in 1261. ), Trapesunta (It. The Turkish name of the city is Trabzon. İsmail Ustaoğlu was appointed the Governor of the province in October 2018.[3]. The character Temel, a universal buffoon figure found in many cultures, forms an important part of the Turkish oral tradition. Ali Şükrü Bey, publisher and politician from Trabzon who opposed violence against ethnic minorities and paid the ultimate price for his criticism of Mustafa Kemal. In 1920, Trabzon produced linen cloth, silver filagree, tanning and small amounts of cotton, silk and wool. Umumî Müfettiş Tahsin Uzer'in Bazı Önemli Faaliyetleri", "Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913- 1950",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 20:29. [59][60] There are also descendants of Circassian muhajiris[61] in the city, as well as smaller number of Laz people, Muslim Greeks (Romeyka-speakers) and Armenians (Hemshin). Many characteristics of the city can be recognized: the two streams dividing the central core, the separately walled quarters, the Genoese town next to the winter harbour, Haghia Sophia at the bottom right, and, The first city-view of Trebizond, published by. However, progress has been slow in comparison to the western and the southwestern parts of Turkey. Major exports from Trabzon include hazelnuts and tea. Trabzon (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈtɾabzon], Romeika: Trapezounta), historically known as Trebizond in English, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. There are several streams, but no rivers in Trabzon. [20], The city regained importance when it became the seat of the theme of Chaldia. "[55] Trabzon was known for producing poor quality cereals, most which were grown for local use. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and sons, 1851. Regional dishes include the Akçaabat köfte (spicy lamb meatball from the Akçaabat district), Karadeniz pidesi (canoe shaped pita bread, often filled with ground beef, cheese and eggs), kuymak (a Turkish fondue made with cornmeal, fresh butter and cheese), Vakfıkebir ekmeği (large country-style bread), Tonya tereyağı (Tonya butter), tava mısır ekmeği (deep-dish corn bread) and kara lahana çorbası (bean and cabbage soup). Trebizond gained importance for its access to roads leading over the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the upper Euphrates valley. Trabzon, Qara dəniz sahilləri ilə Ziqana dağları arasında yerləşən, olduqca zəngin təbiətə, rəngarəng adət-ənənələrə, əsrarəngiz mədəniyyətə malik … Ile de la Réunion - Vous aimez voyager, mais vous ne savez pas où partir ni que visiter ? A number of European consulates were opened in the city due to its importance in regional trade and commerce. [24] Supporting Comnena's assertion, Simon Bendall has identified a group of rare coins he believes were minted by Gabras and his successors. The Russian Army ultimately retreated from the city and the rest of eastern and northeastern Anatolia.